Spectrum Monitoring is, besides Spectrum Planning and Licensing, one of the key elements in spectrum management process. Monitoring is not only solving interference problems but also tasked with for instance: Frequency Planning and Licensing provide the theoretical (calculated) occupancy. Monitoring provides the real (automatically or manual measured) occupancy. The smaller the difference between theoretical and real occupancy, the better the quality of the overall spectrum management process.


Learning Course details
The Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors (SMTA) spectrum monitoring learning course is based on the latest ITU-R and CEPT Recommendations, Reports and Handbooks and gives an introduction into the most common spectrum monitoring measurement techniques. All teachers are experienced monitoring engineers, have also fulfilled jobs in the management of the monitoring department and participated in ITU-R Study group 1 as well as in CEPT working groups and project teams.

Currently SMTA offers two course delivery models depending on your specific requirements:
Master Class Customized Training
Target Audience Individuals Groups, companies, organisations
Contents Modules description below Choose any modules from below
Dates Mo 11 May - Fri 15 May 2020  FULL
Mo 31 Aug - Fri 4 Sep 2020
Course length 5 days Flexible
Location Bussum city, the Netherlands On-site or in the Netherlands
Registration online registration form please contact us
For more information, please contact Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors in the Netherlands: +31356917788 or +31636226038. E-mail: training@spectrummonitoring.com. References provided upon request.

1. Introduction to Spectrum Monitoring
  • Radio Telecom Environment
    - Global, Regional, National
  • International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  • ITU-R WRC's
  • ITU-R Study Groups
  • ITU-R Spectrum Monitoring Handbook(s)
  • ITU-R SG1 WP1C Mailing lists - FTP server
  • CEPT
  • Structure of ECC
  • CEPT ECC WGFM PT 22 (FM22 - European Monitoring Group)
  • ETSI
  • Actual items in international forums, e.g. Digital Dividend 1-2-3, International Space Monitoring, Cognitive radio, 5G, IoT, WiFi (offload 3G/4G), Mobile Data Collection
  • Outcome WRC 2015, WRC 2019, agenda WRC 2023
This module gives information on the telecom environment on a global (ITU), regional (CEPT, APT etc.) and national level, their structure and study groups, working groups and project teams. Where to find and how to use the different recommendations, reports, etc.

2. Manual Monitoring
There is still a need to develop skills in manual monitoring, identify stations and log the transmitter parameters using the ITU classification of emissions. Information from manual and automatic monitoring can be combined (see plot below) to increase the quality of the output.

  • Radio Regulations
  • Manual monitoring
  • Identification (+software)
  • RR. APP1, Classification of emission
  • Results from Manual Monitoring
    - Using ITU-R SM.1393 Common formats for the exchange of information between monitoring stations
    - Using ECC(02)03 Exchange of radio monitoring information using electronic means in common monitoring campaigns
  • Countries contributing to the IMS
  • Manual Monitoring combined with Automatic Monitoring
  • Some practical examples
  • IARU database

3. Role of Monitoring in the Spectrum Management Process
  • Key elements in Spectrum Management
  • Spectrum Management definitions
  • Monitoring Stations
  • Monitoring Department
  • Relations in Spectrum Management
  • Monitoring of the Spectrum
  • Monitoring tasks and techniques
  • Changing role of Regulatory Authority
  • Monitoring definitions
  • Discussion with customers
  • Responsibilities
  • Spectrum management cycle
  • ECC Report 130
  • Need for Effective Monitoring
  • Why Spectrum managers should listen to Monitoring
Frequency Planning, Frequency Licensing and Spectrum Monitoring are key elements in the spectrum management process. The role of Monitoring is to support this process in order to realise a useable and interference free spectrum.

4. Inspection of Radio stations from a Monitoring Perspective
Approximately 90% of all transmitter problems are caused by exceeding power or bandwidth limits. Monitoring can perform many (automatic) measurements to support inspection and enforcement. Automatic comparison of measured and predicted field strength is very easy in a lot of frequency bands.

  • Inspections in Europe (ECC Report 130)
  • Antenna Patterns
  • Different Types of Inspection
  • Conformity Check
  • Technical Parameters to be measured
  • Remote/on Site
  • Reasons or Triggers of Inspection
  • Pre-start Inspections
  • Pre-announced inspections
  • License exempt
  • Position in the Organisation
  • Remote Inspections using ITU-R SM.1809 / 1880
  • Comparison of measured with calculated values
  • Inspection using helicopter or unmanned aircraft

5. Simple Frequency Channel Occupancy Measurements
  • General Considerations
  • Reasons for FCO
  • Important parameters:
    - Threshold level, dynamic, pre-defined
    - Occupancy
    - Measurement time
    - Observation time
    - Re-visit time (systematic measurements)
    - Length of expected transmissions
    - Duration of monitoring
    - Resolution of measurements
    - Occupied bandwidth of expected spectra
    - Size of filter
    - Accuracy
    - Erlang/Busy hour
  • Different FCO Methods
    - Continuous
      * Short, medium, long interval
      * Dependent and independent
    - Systematic
    - Monte Carlo (Random)
  • Dependent and Independent sampling
  • Site Considerations
  • Undesired signals
  • Limitations on Monitoring
  • ITU Handbook 4.10
  • Examples of displaying data

This module gives general information on most types of Frequency Occupancy Measurements (FCO), not to be confused with Frequency Band Occupancy measurements. It contains information from ITU-R SM.1880, the old ITU-R SM.1536 and Handbooks 2002 and 2010. In many countries the measurement principles are more or less the same, however, the way of presenting results is often very different. This part ends with a lot of real-life examples showing how channel occupancy is presented in different countries.

6. Spectrum Control using Automatic FBO Measurements (ITU-R SM.1809 and ECC(05)01)
Frequency Band Occupancy measurements can relatively easy and cheap be performed at monitoring stations. Let a receiver or spectrum analyzer run automatically according to a pre defined schedule, for instance every 24 hours a certain frequency band. By doing this a lot of information will be available on signal levels, occupancy etc. By repeating such measurements regularly it makes it possible to determine historical trends on spectrum usage. Developments: daily measurements 20 MHz - 6 GHz

  • Spectrum Management
  • Spectrum Monitoring
  • Frequency Band Occupancy measurements (FBO)
    - Rec. ITU-R SM 1809 and ECC(05)01
    - File details
    - Process
    - Data collection
    - Results
  • Signal to Noise ratio
  • Relation filter and step size
  • Measuring schedule
  • FBO results, comparison with theory
  • FBO measuring configuration
  • Developments
  • Summary
  • References

7. Frequency Channel Occupancy Measurements (ITU SM.1880)
  • Frequency channel and band measurements
  • Reasons for FCO
  • Measurement methods
    - Continuous
    - Systematic
    - Monte Carlo
  • Important parameters
  • Philosophy
  • Increase of re-visit time
  • Data collection using ITU SM.1809
  • Process measured field strength
  • Occupancy in:
    - color plot
    - table
    - HF bands
  • Occupancy verses availability
  • Demo presentation aeronautical bands, 4 years, 5 measurements including trends
  • Demo FCO/website
Tests show that an increase in re-visiting time to a certain level hardly influences the accuracy. This means that by increasing the number of channels and with relatively simple equipment monitoring can provide frequency channel occupancy information on a lot of channels. The ITU-R SM.1809 frequency band occupancy measurements can be applied, not only displaying results of frequency band measurements, but also the channel occupancy can be retrieved automatically very easily. . Plots show occupancy caused by different users on one channel.

8. Introduction to Satellites
To monitor signals from satellites we need special space monitoring stations. Though there are relatively few space monitoring stations in the world, SMTA offers also a spectrum monitoring training module on this subject which gives an introduction to satellites and the deployed frequency bands.

  • General/background/history
  • Different orbits
  • Satellite frequency bands
  • Radio Navigation Satellite Service
    - Compass
    - GPS
    - QZss
    - GLONAS
    - Gallileo
    - IRNNS
  • Iridium
  • ITU-R Space Service Department
  • International Space Monitoring
  • Task of a Space Monitoring Station
  • Growing importance of Space Monitoring
  • Interferences caused by satellites
  • Antennas in Leeheim

9. The Modern or Smart Monitoring Process (R.A.A.P.)
  • Different approaches in Europe (ECC Report 130)
  • Various reasons to Monitor the Spectrum
  • Conformity with the rules
  • Conformity with the Policy
  • Observe-Analyse-Intervene (or not)
  • R.A.A.P. process
    - Recording
    - Archiving
    - Analysing
    - Presenting

Monitoring is more than performing measurements, manually or automatically. Smart Monitoring offers a modern tool for collecting facts. Therefore it is important that monitoring is accepted as a vital part in the process of Spectrum Management and could for instance be divided in 4 steps: 1) Recording of the spectrum, 2) Archiving the data, 3) Analysing the information, and 4) Presentation of the results (e.g. on a website).

10. Smart and Delta Monitoring
Enhance the monitoring results by (automatically) comparing measured values with those of existing databases (e.g. from planning and licensing). Repeating measurements in the same frequency bands enables monitoring to determine historical trends in spectrum usage.

  • Modern monitoring in FM BC smart monitoring.
  • Modern monitoring in FM BC delta monitoring.
  • Modern monitoring Availability of information
  • Data collection
  • Special Analyses in FM BC
    - Comparison of measured and calculated field strength
    - Simulation of spectrum mask measurements
    - Historical Trends
    - Automatic detection of Illegal Stations
  • Delta Monitoring
  • Examples of Δtime and Δlocation, e.g.:
    - 1805-1880 MHz GSM1800 > LTE1800 refarming
    - 925-960 MHz GSM900 > UMTS900 > LTE900 refarming
    - 790-862 MHz allocation to the Mobile Service on a Primary basis in ITU Region 1

11. Automatic Detection of Illegal (Broadcast) Stations
  • History of illegal broadcast
  • Illegal use of MF, HF, VHF
  • Interferences caused by illegal BC
  • Products from illegal BC
  • Number of illegal stations in The Netherlands
  • Prosecution policy in The Netherlands
  • Measured exceeding of predicted values
  • Measured illegal use from RM stations
  • Interference caused by different stations (time, level)
  • Automatic detection of illegal use
  • demo

Exceeding of permitted power can easily be determined by automatic comparison of predicted and measured values. In addition to that, it is possible to detect illegal stations for instance in the FMBC band. Spectrum Monitoring Technology Advisors developed software for the entire range from 87.5 to 108 MHz. The in Matlab written software is based on the difference in received level during the day.

12. Propagation of Radio Waves
Monitoring engineers should have some knowledge of propagation of radio waves. This SMTA training course contains a comprehensive propagation module. The level of this module can be tuned to the background knowledge of your monitoring staff.

  • Frequency/Wavelength
  • Radio waves and their primary mode of propagation
  • Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere
  • D, E and F layer
  • Different Types of Propagation
  • HF, Sky wave Propagation
  • Electrical and magnetic fields
  • Sunspot numbers
  • Propagation models
  • Polarisation
  • Line of sight (LOS)
  • Free Space Loss
  • Reflections Multipath
  • Doppler effect
  • Fresnel zone
  • Diffraction
  • Importance of Frequency Selection
  • Evaporation Ducts in the Atmosphere
  • Propagation Loss due to Atmospheric Absorption / Attenuation

13. FM Broadcast Measurements
  • FM Modulation principle
  • FM Modulation index
  • Bessel function
  • Carlson's rule
  • FM baseband signal
  • Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
  • FM stereo
  • Other subcarrier signals
    - SCA
    - RDS Radio Data System (EN50067)
    - RDS2 or XDS2
    - DARC
    - STIC
    - HSDS (Seiko)
    - FMextra
  • IBOC HD Radio
  • Audio filtering and RDS levels
  • Protection Ratio ITU-R BS-412
  • SM 1268 Spectrum Mask measurements
  • SM 1268 deviation measurements
  • Levels of audio processing
  • Examples of measurements
  • FMBC measurement equipment
  • Successor of FMBC in band II
  • Government Policy DAB+, FM Switch-Off
  • Low Power FMBC

FM broadcasting is still very popular and it will remain for a number of years to come. The FMBC signal is rather complex. In this module a lot of techniques from previous modules are applied, such as smart and delta monitoring, comparing automatically measured and predicted field strength etc. Also frequency band occupancy measurements are used to collect data and present detailed information on FMBC. Furthermore, the baseband signal is studied and, for instance, the results from audio processing on the spectrum shape. This module contains a lot of examples of real-life measurements.

14. Interferences
Preventing and solving interferences is a very important, but not the only, monitoring task. This training module starts with some general information, such as for instance ITU definitions, harmonics, IM products followed by a lot of practical examples of interference problems in many countries retrieved from CEPT FM22 and ITU-R meetings and documents.

  • Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious domain
    - definitions
    - Harmonics
    - Intermodulation
    - Spurious
  • Intermodulation FM BC in aero bands
  • Passive Intermodulation (PIM)
  • Spurious from Radar on WLL 3.5 GHz
  • Interference on weather radar by RLAN 5 GHz
  • Speed trap radar detectors
  • WIFI/RLAN (France, Netherlands Germany)
  • WIFI Analysers
  • Satellite interferences / GNSS jammers
  • Iridium Satellites into RAS band
  • Power Line Communications (PLC)
  • Analogue/Digital TV
  • Wind turbines on radar
  • Interference from UMTS on DVB-T (ECC Report 138)
  • Interference from LTE on DVB-T
  • Interference from LTE on Cable TV / DVB-C
  • Plasma Screens on MF and HF
  • Portable LTE jammer 725 - 779 MHz
  • Interference from LTE on WLAN v.v.
  • DECT 6 Interference on UMTS 1920 - 1940 MHz
  • GNSS jammers
  • HDMI to uplink GSM
  • LED video walls
  • OTH radar
  • Interference handling using drones
  • Interference cases in the CEPT
  • Illegal use in CEPT 2014-2018
  • FM22 Questionnaire on LTE and DVB-T/T2
  • Interferences to EESS in 1400 - 1427 MHz
  • Interference by Solar Power inverters
  • Animal trackers

15. WiFi, RLANs and other systems in 700 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz and 60 GHz
  • ITU RR and European allocation 2.4 GHz
  • Wireless Standards, ETSI and IEEE
  • Use of 2.4 GHz
  • Wireless Networks
  • 802.11ac in 5 GHz, 802.11ad in 60 GHz
  • RLAN Technologies below 10 GHz, Overview
  • 802.11b overlap in channels, measurements
  • Illegal High Power WiFi
  • Increase of Operating Distance using Directional Antenna, ECC Rep. 057
  • RLAN EIRP in 5GHz
  • Zigbee (802.15.4) and Bluetooth (802.15)
  • Bluetooth V5 (new functions) and WiFi
  • Bluetooth and competing techniques
  • 802.11n 5GHz WLANs
  • Coverage Comparison 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz RLANs (measurement examples)
  • 2.4 GHz interferences in Europe
  • IEEE 802.11 ac in 5GHz "Gigabit WIFI"
  • 5 GHz channels arrangement
  • Proposed new 5 GHz channel arrangement
  • Existing and future use in UK/Europe/USA
  • New 802.11 standards, af, ad, ay, ax, ai
  • 60GHz Spectrum Allocation Worldwide
  • 802.11 aj in 45 GHz (China)
  • 802.11 AH < 1 GHz using DFS and TPC
  • 802.11 BE EHT WiFi 7?
  • Evolution of WiFi around the World
  • Coverage in WiFi 802.11 - 802.11ax
  • City Beacons
  • RLAN frequency bands around the world
  • WiFi spectrum analysers/sniffers

The band 2400 - 2483.5 MHz is allocated to ISM but also a lot of other users are active in this frequency band. WiFi RLANs cause rather high occupancy in this frequency band. In most countries these RLANs are license exempt. RLANs however also have to fulfill certain conditions. In a lot of countries there are serious problems with these systems. The 5 GHz RLANs are becoming more and more popular because the 5 GHz band is not as heavily occupied as the 2.4 GHz band. A lot of new IEEE 802.11 standards for frequency ranges up to 60 GHz were developed recently. Manufactures are working on new RLANs integrated with 3G and 4G. About 75% of all mobile data traffic is running via WiFi. It is considered as a possible "offload" from 3G/4G traffic. That's why we see a fast development in new WiFi systems and used frequency ranges. There are also developments in systems like Bluetooth, Zigbee etc.

16. Introduction to RADAR (RAdio Detecting And Ranging)
WRC 03 allocated some additional services to the Radiolocation frequency bands. This sharing results in interference problems. This training module gives information on Radar principles, Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and activities in ITU-R Study groups and a lot of Radar spectra which makes it easier for monitoring staff to recognise and analyse these Radar transmissions.

  • ITU RR definitions
  • ITU allocation to Radiolocation
  • Frequency Sharing in Radiolocation Bands
  • Radar principle
  • Rotating antenna pattern
  • Plan Position Indicator (PPI)
  • Determination of direction
  • Duplexer
  • Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF)
  • Pulse shape
  • Unambiguous Range
  • Different Types/Frequencies
  • Air Traffic Control Radar
  • Primary and Secondary Surveillance Radar
  • Weather Radar Change in elevation
  • Discriminating from other Radar
  • RLAN Interference on 5 GHz Radar
  • Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
  • Examples of spectra of different types of Radar
  • Over The Horizon Radar

17. Introduction to Statistical Analysis
  • Data collection
  • Conversion
  • Terms and definitions
  • Example common used plots like:
    - bar plot
    - sum frequency polygon
    - histogram
    - Circle/pie diagram
    - frequency polygon
    - box plot
  • Centre values
    - Mean
    - Modus
    - Median
  • Spread values
    - Range
    - Quartile
    - Variance
    - Standard deviation
  • Practical Applications

Spectrum Monitoring is not only measuring but also converting the measurement results into information, understandable for our customers. As most measurements are performed automatically this can result in a huge amount of data and we have to apply statistics to keep it readable.

18. WiMAX
So far WiMAX and LTE are the only by ITU accepted 4G systems in the world. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data rates over longer distances. At the moment in most countries' operators do not invest anymore in WiMAX but it is in use for a number of years in several countries.

  • What is WiMAX
  • Speed versus mobility of Wireless
  • Subscribers by Region and by Operators
  • Data rate at various Channel Bandwidths
  • Mobile WiMAX
  • Mobile WiMAX Tower (Alvarion)
  • OFDM sub channelization
  • OFDM frame structure
  • OFDM symbol Structure
  • WiMAX Spectra
  • Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation
  • WiMAX versus WiFi
  • WiMAX versus UMTS
  • WiMAX Analyser
  • WiMAX in Amsterdam (3.4 - 3.6 GHz)

19. Cellular Networks
  • Developments in Technologies (generations)0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G
  • 3GPP(2)
  • 3GPP UMTS LTE Releases
  • Refarming 900/1800 MHz bands (e.g. GSM900 to UMTS900 or LTE900)
  • Data rate per system
  • Data rate versus mobility
  • Communications Standards
  • OFDM(A) DL
  • OFDM time and frequency multiplexing
  • Multipath in OFDM, guard interval
  • LTE down link spectrum
  • LTE coverage in different frequency ranges
  • LTE, Europe, Asia Pacific, North America, Freq. Bands
  • LTE-A (3GPP Rel. 10) Carrier Aggregation
  • Measurement examples of C.A.
  • Carrier Aggregation, Improvement in DL
  • Supplemented Downlink (SDL)
  • LTE-U License Assisted Access
  • Beamforming
  • LTE Categories
  • From SISO to MIMO
  • Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast by Region
  • T-Mobile 4G networks in Germany
  • HSPA and LTE Evolution
  • 2G-5G versus WLAN
  • Time line for of cellular generations
  • The Path to 5G
  • Evaluation of Mobile Communications Multiple Access Technologies
  • LTE-A-Pro Stepping Stone to 5G?

This part of the SMTA training course deals with a combination of different digital communication systems. It gives a short overview on the developments from 0G to 5G, but is focused on 4G LTE, LTE Advanced and LTE-A-Pro (4.5G) including information on new antenna techniques, such as MIMO, beam forming, Carrier Agregation. There are also examples of refarming of the 900 and 1800 MHz bands (including real-life measurement examples). This module also contains info on LTE in unlicensed bands (LTE-U) and a lot of other developments. LTE and WiFi will probably integrate more and more.

20. Short Range Devices
Short Range Devices are small devices with a large impact. The types and number of Short Range devices is increasing. In CEPT the permanent SRD/ Maintenance Group is following the developments and is determining the technical requirements, which can be found back in ECC Report 70. In this module some general aspects of SRD&s are explained and it ends with results of measurements in the 863-870 MHz.

  • WRC-12 Agenda item 1.22
  • ECC Report 70 and its 13 Annexes
  • ITU-R WP1C SRD Measurements
  • ITU-R WP1C PDNR on SRD Sept. 2010
  • Relation between SRD monitoring and other monitoring operations
  • Mobile monitoring set up
  • Frequency Plan 863-870 MHz
  • Field strength versus distance (free space and att. 20dB)
  • Spectrum registration 863-870 MHz typical RFID populated area

21. Digital Broadcasting Systems
  • DRM, DRM+, DRM120
  • DRM transmissions HF and MF
  • DRM+ implementation FM band
  • DAB Modes
  • DAB principles, interferences
  • DAB OFDM characteristics
  • DAB Channel 12 Measurements
  • DAB/DAB+ around the world
  • DAB channel 12 measurements
  • DAB+, benefits
  • DAB+ SDR measurements
  • Sound Quality of DAB(+) versus FMBC
  • DMB in relation with DAB, DAB+
  • DMB around the world
  • DVB-T, DVB-T2, DVB-T lite
  • GE(06)
  • Analogue Switch-Off (ASO)
  • Digital television standards around the world
  • DVB-T GE06 Spectrum Mask
  • DVB-T versus DVB-T2
  • DVB-T transition period measurements
  • FMextra and IBOC HD Radio

In all frequency ranges new digital broadcasting systems gradually replace analogue systems. In the MW and HF frequency range DRM is not very successful so far. DAB is available in a number of countries and DTT is already on air in a lot of countries and in the near future all analogue systems will be replaced by DTT systems, such as DVB-T and DVB-T2. The big difference in protection ratio between analogue and DVB-T explains an advantage to the transition.

22. Digital Dividend 1, 2 and 3

After implementation of DVB-T (GE-06) and switch-off of Analogue TV there is frequency space available because of more efficient use of the spectrum by digital TV. These new space in frequency bands, as result of more efficient use, is indicated as Digital Dividend. WRC 2015 indicated also other TV frequency bands to be cleared.

  • EU Radio Spectrum Policy Group
  • Protection ratio analogue and digital television
  • Benefit Digital Dividend in Europe and USA
  • Propagation characteristics of the spectrum
  • LTE FDD and TDD
  • 2nd Digital Dividend
  • Reduction in Spectrum Consumption
  • Why UHF?
  • White Spaces
  • Long term vision on UHF BC band, 3rd DD
  • PMSE studies
  • 4G networks
  • LTE use in DD band Germany
  • 4G network rollout in The Netherlands
  • CEPT Reports on DD
  • References

23. New Wireless Systems, Techniques and Developments
  • High Altitude Platforms (HAPs)
  • Google HAP Balloon above Puerto Rico
  • Site Audits via Remotely Piloted Aircraft
  • RF measurements with drones up to 110 GHz
  • Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
  • Frequency bands used by Automotive Radar
  • Example of 77 GHz Automotive Transmission
  • ITS and W RC2019
  • 3GPP eCall System Overview
  • GSM on board aircraft
  • WiFi Internet Connection on Board Aircraft (High Speed 4G Internet)
  • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
  • Fake Cell Towers on Planes
  • Police Jamming Vehicle
  • 3GPP Rel.15 and Drones
  • Drone served by LTE Network
  • LIFI
  • Wireless Power Transfer (WPT)

This module contains an overview of all kind of recently developed new techniques and systems using the radio frequency spectrum, including the frequency used bands.

24. General Spectrum Monitoring Items

This presentation contains a lot of spectrum monitoring related items on different levels with a limited number of slides per item, varying from Ohm's Law to Dynamic Frequency Selection (in for instance the 5 GHz radar frequency band) and White Spaces. On request a lot of these items could be expanded to more complete training modules.

  • RR Definitions
  • ECC Report 138 definitions
  • Ohm's Law
  • Electrical Power
  • Large Figures
  • Construction of a Sinus
  • Voltage: Vpeak, Vpeak/peak, Vrms
  • Networks (configuration)
  • Equipment properties
    - Signal to Noise ratio
    - Detector of a spectrum analyser
    - Superheterodyne receiver/analyser
    - Filters
    - Selectivity
    - Dynamic range
  • Down Tilt of Antenna
  • Down Tilt Coverage
  • Frequency and time domain
  • Trunked Radio Systems
  • Diversity reception
  • Channel Bonding in WIFI bands
  • Ambient and Natural Noise
  • Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
  • Bluetooth
  • Development in Communications
  • White Spaces
  • Special Events
  • Supplemented Downlink
  • DECT 1880 -1900 MHz

25. Experimental Processing
  • Reliability of new measurement methods
  • Occupancy independent from level
  • Occupancy verses availability
  • Dynamic threshold level
  • Detection of White spaces
  • Statistical distribution of gaps
  • Statistical distribution of transmission length
  • Classes of occupancy
  • Propagation factor
  • Sampling over time
  • Histogram (double)
  • Detailed analyses of occupancy data
  • Data reduction
New communication systems appear and new measurement methods should be developed. It takes time for manufactures to come with new equipment and/or software. Monitoring organizations should be able to develop their own software for a lot of items. For instance detecting of White Spaces. What measuring method should be used and what parameters should be applied to detect these?

26. Cognitive Radio (CR) and TV White Spaces (TVWS)

To share freed TV bands with incumbent users, Cognitive Radio can be used to detect white spaces and make use of geolocation databases to determine whether other services can use these empty places in the spectrum. If channels are unused this does not mean that these channels are available.

  • Digital Dividend and White Spaces
  • Cognitive Radio
  • ITU Definition Cognitive Radio System (CRS)
  • White Space CEPT Report 24
  • White Space Technologies
  • White Space during Euro Songfestival 2011
  • PMSE Applications
  • Methods to get knowledge of Spectrum use
  • Incumbent radio service/system
  • COGEU Third Way Opportunity
  • COGEU Measurement Campaign in Munich
  • Spectrum Allocation after DSO in UK
  • White Space Definition
  • Hidden Node Problem
  • White-Fi IEEE 802.11af
  • USA TVWS Database
  • Spectrum Access in Future

27. 5G and 5G related information
  • 5G Technology Requirements
  • Increasing Data Speed in 5G
  • 5G Spectrum Considerations
  • Expected Timeline of Evolution to 5G
  • LTE, LTE-A, LTE-A Pro, 5G
  • Comparison 4G/LTE and 5G techniques
  • 5G Infrastructure to Support Ultra High Data Rate
  • Beamforming in 5G
  • 5G Waveforms
  • Mobile Communications Multiple Access Technology
  • Concept of OFDM
  • 5G CP-OFDM
  • 5G NR Radio Design
  • Global Status October 2017
  • Stand Alone (SA) and Non-Stand-Alone (NSA)
  • Spectrum Available for Broadband now and in the future (<6 GHz (Fr1))
  • Candidate 5G Frequency bands
  • 3GPP New Frequency Bands in Fr1 and Fr2
  • Meeting future Spectrum demand
  • 5G Test 3.7 GHz KSA June 2018
  • Latency/Delay
  • Bandwidth and Carrier Aggrigation
  • Network Slicing
  • Channel Bandwidth in 5G Fr1 and Fr2
  • Summary of 5G Applications
  • Footprint 4G versus 5G
  • RF Trends towards 5G
  • Switch off of 2G and 3G
  • UK O2 Launched 5G network on 17 October 2019
  • 5G Median and Maximum Download Speeds (Mbps) UK January 2020
  • Requirements for 6G wireless

After 3G and 4G/LTE, LTE-A and LTE-PRO, the 3GPP 5th Generation in cellular systems (5G) is under development. A number of 4G enhancements are used to increase the throughput from 5G. In several organizations 5G tests are running and the first commercial service has been launched in the US on October 1st, 2018.

28. The Internet of Things (IoT/M2M)

The term IoT encompasses everything connected to the internet, but it is increasingly being used to define objects that "talk" to each other. Simply, the Internet of Things is made up of devices from simple sensors to smartphones and wearables connected together. By combining these connected devices with automated systems, it is possible to "gather information, analyse it and create an action" to help someone with a particular task, or learn from a process.

  • IoT and M2M
  • Basic IoT configuration
  • ISM / unlicensed frequency bands
  • Short Range (IoT) Wireless Technologies
  • Lorawan, Sigfox and other new systems
  • Wifi and IoT, HAYLOW
  • Integration WiFi in Cellular neworks incl. 5G
  • Narrow-Band IoT examples (R&S, Ericsson)
  • Narrow-Band IoT in LTE
  • NB-IoT or LTE Cat-NB1 or LTE- M2
  • Summary eMTC, NB-IoT, LTE-2
  • NB-IoT example measurements LTE guard band 920-960 MHz and 790-862 MHz in The Netherlands and Tsjech Republic
  • Overview of Technologies for LPWA IoT
  • IoT Data Rate versus Range
  • IoT Power consumption versus range
  • NB-IoT frequency ranges
  • Terahertz and beyond 100 GHz progress

29. Mobile Data Collection (MDC)
  • Spectrum Monitoring and Technology
  • Network Coverage Fixed Monitoring Network
  • Mobile Data collection (MDC) principles
  • Network Coverage MDC
  • Streetview
  • MDC vehicle Mounting
  • Data Presentation and Output Formats
  • Examples of measurements using MDC
  • MDC using other than monitoring vehicles

There are several methods to conduct measurements while driving a (monitoring) vehicle. Using Rec. ITU-R SM1708 is one of them. An other method, which is described in this module, is to equip several (20?) monitoring and other vehicles with equipment which is continuous measuring a certain frequency range, e.g. 20 MHz - 6 GHz. It starts automatically as soon as the vehicle starts to drive and ends when the vehicle stops. The results are automatically send to a central point (monitoring station) and will be processed automatically. It enables monitoring services to collect and display a lot of spectrum occupancy information with very limited human labor.

30. Monitoring Stations

This module consists of photos, drawings etc. from (mobile) monitoring stations from many European and other countries.
Monitoring Centre Shanghai, China